Never was there a stranger presidential year than 1972 - when President Richard Nixon was apparently poised for successful re-election while his "tricky" bits along the way were threatening to surface in a devastating fashion. After three hard years of effort, the Vietnamese war finally seemed on the verge of ending despite the secret campaign the White House had been conducting at home and abroad while trying to decouple the communist powers from the process by opening the door to Red China's recognition, and seeking a Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty with the Soviets. Nonetheless, the Oval Office was most worried of the public learning of the conniving its occupant had used in getting there, the most conspiratorial way it operated once there, and its reckless gambling with the future in order to remain.
Efforts to stop knowledgeable whistleblowers, especially former agent to CIA's top officials Victor Marchetti, from publishing works on Agency deceptions was just a stop-gap effort as others were bound to come along. While prepublication review by the CIA of proposed work, and secrecy contracts for all employees of covert government - something difficult to arrange with those already hired - promised to stem the tide of revelations of shoddy, if not illegal, work, there was still the problem of the secret documents themselves, especially signal intelligence aka SIGINT, especially from NSA's National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), surfacing - exposure of which would blow Nixon's ship of state right out of the water.
1972 was most concerning from the outset in this regard, as Nixon was facing re-election - what he hoped to showcase with a successful conclusion to the war in Southeast Asia. In the year's State of the Union Address, the President announced a further 70,000-man reduction of American forces in South Vietnam - one indicating that full Vietnamization of the struggle was just a short matter of time - while mentioning National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger's secret negotiations with the North Vietnamese for a settlement: an American withdrawal in exchange for the return of those Americans missing in action, a cease-fire, and new elections in South Vietnam - what was intended to break the deadlock in discussions.
The prospect raised the ugly issue of what would happen to South Vietnam's current President, Nguyen Van Thieu, if peace was agreed to but if he refused again to along - what he had done during the last days of the 1968 election campaign in America. On October 31, 1968, LBJ announced a bombing halt in Vietnam, and the assembling of the parties in Paris in the hope that the war could be settled. Two days later, though, Thieu refused to attend the negotiations, and the effort failed. Thieu's refusal was apparently crucial in preventing Democratic Party candidate Hubert Humphrey from snatching victory from the jaws of defeat - what JFK had allegedly done eight years earlier by taking advantage of the secret plans to invade Cuba at the former Republican Vice President's expense. Thanks to Thieu's refusal, LBJ's ploy fell short, and Nixon narrowly won the election.
Of course, Johnson suspected a plot - what was soon established, but he declined to make public, even in his memoirs, The Vantage Point, his highly secretive sources: the Bureau's bugs and surveillance of South Vietnamese Ambassador Bui Diem and Anna Chennault, wife of the celebrated chief of the Flying Tigers in China during WWII, General Claire Chennault; the Agency's bugs on President Thieu's office in Saigon; and the NRO's regularly crypted diplomatic traffic between the South Vietnamese Capital and its embassy in Washington. "There is little doubt that during the final stages of the campaign," Christopher Andrew wrote in For the President's Eyes Only, "Anna Chennault passed on a 'very important' message from the Nixon camp that was intended to dissuade Thieu from agreeing to attend the Paris peace talks until after the election." (p. 349) Johnsoin was apparently persuaded that he had "no reason to think" that Nixon "was himself involved in this maneuvering, but a few individuals in his campaign were." (Jon Weiner, "Another 'October Surprise'," The Nation, November 6, 2000)
Of course, Nixon knew better, and he was already deeply involved in trying to solve the problem - get rid of the members of his campaign who were, destroy the evidence of this "October Surprise", and make sure that Thieu could not kibosh any peace settlement now. While many critics have pooh-poohed Anthony Summers, The Arrogance of Power - like his previous exposés of the JFK assassination, and FBI Directory Hoover because of minor errors, and unsubstantiated speculation - it nailed down who were the culprits in Nixon's campaign staff, New York attorney John Mitchell, and Republican Vice Presidential Candidate Spiro Agnew, who were dealing with the famous Chinese lady. "In interviews with Summers," Wiener wrote,"she said he met with Nixon and his campaign manager (and future Attorney General), John Mitchell, who told her to inform Saigon that if Nixon won the election, South Vietnam would get 'a better deal'." Furthermore, Summers established that the 'Boss' who told her to pass along the message to Thieu, "Hold on, we are gonna win," was Agnew - while on flight stop in Albuerqueque, New Mexico on November 2, 1968.
Nixon was trying to solve the problem by getting rid of Director Hoover - what would end his threats to leading Republican leaders - but without any success because of all the files he had on "Tricky Dick" and others. In October 1971, Nixon vowed to get rid of Hoover, but the President got cold feet during the showdown. Then in December, at Nixon's home in Key Biscayne, he apparently tried to persuade the Director to retire, but failed. Nixon even invited Hoover to accompany him back to Washington on Air Force One - even presenting him with a cake for his seventy-seventh birthday - in the hope that this sign of favor would soften him up to retire.
All the while, Nixon officials in the Justice Department were desperately trying to locate the Director's most sensitive files, some of which involved the NRO - ones about his affair, starting in 1958 in Hong Kong, and still continuing until Nixon was inaugruated, with Marianna Liu, suspected of being a Red Chinese agent; his working with the Bureau which apparently doctored Alger Hiss' typewriter to secure his 1948 conviction of perjury; his helping Nixon become Eisenhower's running mate, and the Republican candidate for President in 1960; looking for more dirt on Edward Kennedy after Chappaquiddick; falsely telling Nixon after he was elected President that LBJ had been bugging his airplane during the final two weeks of the campaign, etc. - and to destroy them, a process which only started in earnest after the Director died.
Actually, the Director went out of his way to frighten Nixon because of his pressuring him to retire - what may well have led to Hoover's convenient death. Columnist Jack Anderson, a growing thorn in the White House's side, somehow obtained in early March a copy of lobbyist Dita Beard's memo, claiming that International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation (ITT) had obtained a favorable Justice Department ruling in an anti-trust suit in 1971 in return for contributing secretly $400,000 and services to the Republican National Convention in San Diego - a quid pro quo which would allow the White House direct access to secret transmissions it was interested in, especially the coded messages between the government in South Vietnam and its embassy in Washington while getting President Thieu on board for a settlement.
The disclosure could not have been a worse one, and could not have occurred at a worse time. The memo completely disrupted what had been agreed to at Camp David on January 28th - the annoucement of Mitchell's resignation on February 15th, and his replacement by Richard Kleindienst, his deputy. Mitchell would return to his law firm which had represented ITT in its disputes with the government. Also, the White House was planning to get rid of the troublemaking Vice President, Spiro Agnew, especially over Vietnam - what would remove from the scene the two most vulnerable of Nixon's associates involved in making the "November Surprise" which sank Humphrey's presidential ambitions.
The disclosure forced Kleindienst, who was being questioned now by the Senate Judiciary Committee for confirmation as Attorney General, to ultimately withdraw his nomination, and Agnew was recruited by Mitchell into the White House task force to prevent dangerous blowback about ITT which threatened even Nixon himself. This clearly involved not only insider-trading with its stock but also the White House using ITT as its own SIGINT service, as Robert Haldeman dutifully recorded on March 5th in his diaries: "P(resident) was concerned about what's at the root of all this, where did his story start, who leaked the memo, who was it written to, and so forth. We don't seem to have the answers on any of that." (pp. 425-26) While the White House was being obliged to stick with Spiro, Nixon was most concerned that Colson, his special counsel, and handler of The Plumbers aka the Special Investigations Unit, kept a low profile during the whole affair.
Nixon had good reason for Colson to play it cool, as he had recommended the burning down of a famous Washington research institution when The Plumbers started looking for documents regarding important leaks and leakers, as Woodward and Bernstein recorded in All the President's Men - what even his naive superior, John Dean, had enough sense to call off: "Morton Halperin, Daniel Ellsberg's friend whose telephone was among the 'Kissinger taps,' was believed to have kept some classified documents when he left Kissinger's staff to become a fellow at the Brookings Institution (a center for the study of pulic policy questions)." (p. 324) It was the beginning of the Plumber project of dirty tricks, code-named "Gemstone". Of course, the White House wanted the papers back but not yet at this expense. Moreover, it wanted to minimize the possibilities of such blunders by recruiting ITT as its own SIGINT service.
The Nixon White House had something really big planned with ITT, as was demonstrated by the lengths it went to in order to get Ms. Beard to repudiate the memo, and to cover up what was really planned with the communications giant. Plumber Hunt, using a CIA-supplied red wig, went to see her in a Denver hospital to get her to deny the memo's authenticity. Then the White House tried to make out that ITT was the initiator of all the deals involving it, especially the prevention of socialist Salvatore Allende becoming President of Chile, and that they simply concerned money - what was patently untrue. John McCone, former DCI, and now ITT's director, offered the Agency in 1970 $1,000,000 to stop Allende's election - what DCI Helms made sure looked like the CIA had sought, and when it came time to censor Marchetti's manuscript. Shortly thereafter, Anthony Sampson's exposé of the international conglomerate, The Sovereign State of ITT, appeared, but it was so involved in talking about its past international meddling, especially on both sides during WWII, that it never got round to the present.
To stop the rot, Nixon had John Dean visit Hoover in the hope of getting the Director to declare the memo a fake. The encounter was a bruising one for the President's young counsel. After Dean had hesitantly explained to J. Edgar what the White House wanted, he said - after telling a tale about how Anderson was even willing to go through his trash and its dog shit for a story - that he would be pleased to test its authenticity. As Hoover was ushering Dean out, he even volunteered material from his famous files, as Curt Gentry wrote in J. Edgar Hoover, on the troublesome reporter.
Given the fact that ITT had already tested the memo's authencity, and the expert, Pearl Tytell, had staked her reputation on its being a recent forgery, Nixon was ecstatic over the probable result - comparing it to how the testing of Alger Hiss's typewriter had led to his undoing: "The typewriters are always the key." (Quoted from Gentry, p. 716.)
The President was totally unprepared for the result. Ivan Conrad, head of the Bureau's Laboratory, found that the memo was apparently typed around the date indicated on it, and that it was probably genuine. Of course, Nixon was beside himself over the result, uttering that it was Hoover who hated Anderson. To change the outcome so that it did not contradict what the ITT expert had found, White House officials pressured the Director, and Nixon even wrote a personal note to Hoover, asking him to "cooperate". Of course, if he had, not only would his continuance at the Bureau been assured but also the cosy relationship the White House had with the SIGINT giant. Ms. Beard's lawyers even released her sworn affidavit, denying her early claims to Anderson. Still, Hoover would not budge, and on March 23rd, the Senate received Hoover's verdict - what ended any hope of Kliendienst becoming Attorney General.
Hoover appeared to be in the driver's seat, given his "back channel" to all kinds of secrets, mostly SIGINT in nature, which threatened disastrous consequences if Nixon fired him. The most talked about source was the taping system that the Director had secretly installed in the Oval Office, but there were many more sources than that. Their scope indicated that Hoover had something even more comprehensive than ITT, most likely the NRO itself. Remember the Director had cut all Bureau liaison with the CIA, DIA, NSA, Secret Service, IRs, etc., but it needed SIGINT in order to prevent some terrible disaster, like another assassination, so there had to be a back channel with the NRO.
It would not have required much from the Director to expand what it was already providing the Bureau in the name of law-enforcement, and nation security. All Hoover would have needed to justify wider coverage was to say that the Bureau was looking into the possibility of some presidential candidate trying to pull off another "November surprise" about the Vietnam war in the hope of stealing the election.
And if not the NRO, perhaps the Institute of Defense Analyses (IDA), now headed by the disgruntled, former head of NRO, Dr. Alexander Flax, who had resigned because of the White House's resumption of efforts to win the war three years earlier. Given what McCone was doing for the White House at ITT, it seems likely that Flax would reciprocate in kind for the whistle-blowing Hoover. The IDA had authority to investigate any national security issue for government departments which was science-related, and it could call upon the Pentagon to provide any information which would be used to help test improvements in law-enforcement, technical equipment, communication security, etc.
The crucial importantce of Hoover now was demonstrated in what the Plumbers were doing. Since their pursuit of leakers, especially Daniel Ellsberg, had led nowhere despite their break-in, with CIA assistance, of his psychiatrist's office in California, they had then been looking into getting rid of Anderson - a possible operation in the Gemstone plan. In late March, G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt met with the Agency's Dr. Edward Gunn, an expert on poisons and neutralizing drugs, and discussed with him how they might incapacitate someone of Scandinavian descent. With the Director proving to be the real danger, though, the focus of the covert operations turned to knocking Alabama Governor George C. Wallace out of the presidential campaign.
Nixon had originally urged the Southerner to compete in the Democratic primaries to help divide its supporters, especially to protect against Teddy Kennedy suddenly attempting to grab the nomination, but Wallace was increasingly proving to be a threat to Nixon's re-election, particularly when Senator George McGovern proved to be a candidate in his own right and not just a stalking horse for the Massachusetts Seantor. The turning point had been the Florida primary which Nixon had urged Wallace to enter, via Bob Haldeman and crony Bebe Rebozo, and he had proven that he was not just a reck-neck from south of the Mason-Dixon Line by knocking out Senator Muskie, the Democratic front runner, for all intents and purposes.
While the Plumbers had an ideal candidate, a Manchurian one, for knocking out Wallace, if circumstances so required, they had to be worried about any replay of the MLK and RFK assassinations at the expense of a real conservative. In 1968, Hoover, as Anthony Summers wrote in Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover, laughed off a bid to join Wallace's ticket as Vice Presidential candidate in order to secure his stay as Director. (p. 369) The Plumbers, thanks to the efforts by Executive-action specialist William King Harvey, had recruited an ideal assassin, young Arthur Bremer from Milwaukee, for any assassination. Harvey was now a particular red-flag for the Director because he reminded him of the treachery that trusted aide William Sullivan, another strong advocate of covert action, had just engaged in with the White House to get him retired, and to replace him. Sullivan had been forced to resign the previous August.
Hoover was surprisingly candid when he spoke about the Nixon's relationship with the Plumbers, particularly Harvey, as Summers has reported: "The President is a good man. He's a patriot. But he listens to some wrong people. By God, he's got some former CIA men working for him that I'd kick out of my office. Someday that bunch will serve him up a fine mess." (Quoted from p. 409.) Since Hoover had kicked Harvey out of his office back in the summer of 1947, there is little doubt that he had especially had him in mind.
Moreover, the total composition of the Plumbers has always been deliberately a bit vague to hide the membership of some notorious characters, as their secretary, Kathleen Chenow, explained to reporters Woodward and Bernstein when the Assistant Attorney General was apparently attempting to get Hoover's files for the White House: "There was another occasion when Mr. Maridan was at a big meeting in Mr. Krogh's office with Liddy, Hunt and three or four people I didn't recognize." (Quoted from All the President's Men, p. 216)
No one has ever seen fit to determine who they might be, and she certainly knew the personnel who regularly worked out of room 16 on the ground floor in the Old Executive Office Building. Along with Harvey, the men seem to have been Felipe Vidal aka Felipe DeDiego and Charles Morgan, Humberto Lopez, and Jaime Ferrer - an anti-Castro group to carry out assassinations since the Bay of Pigs Operation.
Since Hoover was now playing hard ball with the White House - amassing files on all its buggings, intercepts, and break-ins - nothing rash could be attempted until the Director was clearly out of the way. After all, Hoover had recently explained to journalist Andrew Tully that the Plumbers "...think they can get away with murder." (Quote from Official and Confidential, p. 409.) According to an article Mark Frazier published in The Harvard Crimson, this group placed a thiophosphate type poison in Hoover's toilet articles after a previous break-in of his home had failed to find the documents Hoover was holding over the President's head. "Ingestion," Summers explained, "can result in a fatal heart seizure and can be detected only if an autopsy is performed within hours of death." (p. 415)
On May 2, 1972, the Director seems to have suffered such a heart seizure after Nixon had called him shortly before midnight, and told him that he must retire. Hoover's blood-pressure obviously soared after hearing of the fatal, final showdown with the President, and he must have gone to the medical chest for medication required, only to ingest the thiophosphate which left him dead on the floor of his bedroom in a couple of hours.
The next morning, while Nixon crony L. Patrick Gray and Deputy Associate Director Mark Felt, now falsely aka "Deep Throat", were stripping Hoover's home of all its documents and seeing that they were shredded, the medical examiners, after contacting NYC's Medical Examiner Dr. Milton Helpern, decided that the Director had died of natural causes, requiring no autopsy. Later, Felt explained: "For me, it was no personal loss. I never did feel emotional about it. My main thought that day was about the probelms created by his death." (Quoted from Summers, p. 428.)
With Hoover out of the way, Harvey's men moved quickly to finish off Wallace. Bremer, like Travis Bickle in the movie Taxi Driver, was already well prepared for the job, having been subjected to "psychic-driving" reminiscent of how James Earl Ray had been programmed to kill - what would be repeated when it came time for Mark David Chapman to kill Beatle John Lennon. Law enforcement officers were already on the lookout for Bremer after he was arrested on November 18, 1971 for carrying a concealed weapon! For good measure, Bremer bought a Charter Arms .38 caliber revolver at Milwaukee's Casanova Guns, Inc. on January 13 - the same day that he broke up his relationship with teenager Joan Pemrich, and Wallace announced his third run for the Presidency. Bremer purchased a 9mm Browning pistol on February lst.
By the end of March, the Plumber operation was transferred to MIlwaukee. Of course, this led to secretary Chenow's office being the center of all kinds of communications which Hoover was undoubtedly receiving all kinds of copies of. The most likely hypnotist to have programmed Bremer was Dr. William Joseph Bryan, who had helped solve the Boston Strangler murder case by hypnotizing suspect, Albert DiSalvo - a name that Sirhan Sirhan had mysteriously written in his notebook before he shot at RFK. Bryan, during the last two years of his life, boasted to two call girls who "serviced" him regularly before he died in 1977, William Turner and Jonn Christian reported in The Assasination of Robert F. Kennedy: The Conspiracy and Coverup, not only "about hypnotizing Sirhan, but also about working for the CIA on 'top secret projects'." (Jonathan Vankin & John Whalen, The 60 Greatest Conspiracies of All Time, p. 371)
During April, Bremer stalked both Wallace and Nixon in a way which would be repeated eight years later when John Hinckley, Jr. pursued President Carter and Ronald Reagan. Of course, it was much easier for Bremer to gain access to Wallace than to Nixon, even when the President visited Ottawa in Canada, but the programmed assassin explained his aims in ways reminiscent of Hinckley. "Now I start my diary of my personal plot to kill by pistol either Richard Nixon or George Wallace," as Dan T. Carter quoted in The Politics of Rage. "I intend to shoot one or the other while he attends a champange (sic) rally for the Wisconsin Presidential Preference Primary." (p. 419) Nixon, though, never campaigned in Wisconsin, so Bremer was just screwing himself up for some wild aggression against the Alabama Governor when the time came.
Bremer - whose income for 1971 was a measly $1,611 - went on a wild spree in NYC, staying at the Waldorf-Astoria, renting a Lincoln Continental, and seeking sexual pleasure with prostitutes but without any success. Then, reminiscent of how Ray drove around the South, looking for Dr. King, Bremer flew back to Milwaukee, packed his Rambler with his guns, and went to Ottawa again, and to Washington to shoot Nixon, only to report bitterly in his diary: "ALL MY EFFORTS & NOTHING CHANGED. Just another god Damn failure." With Wallace poised to win the Democratic Primary in Michigan, clinching his hold on the Midwest Rust Belt, Nixon was suddenly confronted by a probable third party candidate who could spoil his re-election.
During the two weeks after Hoover's death, Bremer's wild behavior alerted police and the SS that he was a threat, but the questions were to whom and where. As Wallace was winning the South, Bremer was reading Robert Kaiser's R.F.K. Must Die, and attended Stanley Kubrick's film "A Clockwork Orange" at Milwaukee's Mayfair Shopping Center Cinema, imagining that he was actor Alek in the film, and he was getting the Governor. On May 9th, Bremer claimed that only two girls prevented him from shooting Wallace when he attended a rally in Dearborn. Four days later, he arrived five hours before Wallace's scheduled appearance at Kalamazoo's National Guard Armory, and when questioned by police about his unusual behavior, he just said he wanted to make sure he got a good seat.
Two days later, Bremer gunned down Wallace, and three others, including SS agent Nick Zarvos, when he attended the Laurel shopping center in Maryland. No one was killed, but the Governor was severely wounded, resulting in paralysis from the waist down, and essentially settling the election. "Nixon now knew for certain," Fred Emery wrote in Watergate, "he would not be threatened by a Wallace third-party candidacy as in 1968." (p. 115) Of course, officially Nixon acted as if it were just an unexpected occurrence, and did what he could to ease the pain of the Wallaces by getting former Treasury Secretary John Connally to do whatever was necessary to get them to retire quietly from the political scene.
Behind the scenes, though, the President and his covert operators worked frantically to make sure that there was no incriminating evidence back in Bremer's apartment. The FBI, under Mark Felt's leadership, made no immediate attempt to seal it, and, as a consequence, it was stripped of anything of interest by curious reporters and other unknown parties. Felt even knew of Bremer's identity and residence while claiming to Colson that the Bureau knew nothing about the shooting.
"Hunt's story," Emery added, "was that Colson first asked him to break into Bremer's rented rooms in Milwaukee in search of incriminating materials, then called it off. (pp. 115-6) Harvey's people had apparently made Hunt's trip unnecessary. When the Bureau agents arrived at the apartment, they got into a dispute with the SS about who should have control of it. Colson then tried to convince Felt that Bremer had ties with the Kennedy and McGovern camps.
In sum, the killing of Hoover allowed Nixon to insure his re-election by having the Plumbers dispose of Wallace with little difficulty because of Felt's considerable assistance at the Bureau. And it was all deemed necessary because of the SIGINT that the Director had garnered, especially from the NRO.